Hey cypher here today I have a project I’ve, been working on for quite a while. You see, I grew up in Las Vegas, so I have a bit of an affinity for her history, and so I wrote a script on that in the past I’ve had a few people proofreading my scripts and that and today was no different, But what is different about today is that one of those proofreaders is going to be narrating for the video and he’s modified the script quite a bit to fit his style.
Some of you may recognize him from Pawn Stars, but he’s, a prominent local Southern Nevada historian in his own right. So without further ado, let me introduce mark hall-patton hello. I’m mark hall-patton.
I am the administrator of the Clark County Museum system and have been working on Southern Nevada history for about 25 years now I find the history interesting. It’s a little different than a lot of communities.
We are talking about an area that, as a as an urban area, you’re talking about a population a little over two million, an area that’s known internationally as a destination for visitors. We have 40 to 45 million visitors a year coming to Las Vegas and yet a place that the history that people know is normally not just bad, but a spectacularly long, and the fact is.
When you look at our history, it does make sense why we have become what we are, why we put 2 million people in the middle of the desert, and that is why I have found the history here quite fascinating for the last 25 years.
So I hope that, as you take a look at this video, you’ll, learn a little bit. If you come out to Las Vegas, you can always come to the County Museum and learn a little bit more. You [ Music ]. The Las Vegas Valley was initially settled as early as 300 BC of the desert archaic people, the next residence were the Anasazi or proto quit on people who left remains in the Moapa Valley and along the Colorado River in Southern Nevada.
By the time of European contact, the main Indian presence were the Paiutes with the mojave tribe to the south. At the time of contact, the Utes who had the horse before the Paiutes could adapt devastated regional Indian culture by making numerous slave raids, though claimed by Spain.
No Spanish explorers ever came through what is known as the Vegas Valley today. In fact, it was not until seven years after Mexico gained independence from Spain that a Santa Fe trader named Antonio amico connected the New Mexico colony with out to California.
For the first time in 1829, the path his party blazed came to be known as the old Spanish Trail, which was not old or Spanish, when it was named in 1844 by John Charles Fremont, or even much of a trail, more of a meandering route marked on Some maps that allowed for traders to pass through the desolation of the Mojave Desert, moving as watering stops made it necessary after all, Armijo wasn’t, the first European to pass through Southern Nevada.
That was Jedediah Smith, who traversed the Moapa Valley. A couple of years earlier, one of those parts on the map was a place simply called Vegas or the meadow. It was on the map because well duh. They were flowing artesian, wells and meadows there, depending on the travelers direction before after one had to take the longest part of the route without a place to water, their horses called the Jornada del Muerto or route of death.
They could stop at the springs and get fresh water. The site of the Vegas became a known and used stopping point for weary travelers. The same John C Fremont, who gave the trail its name, also made the name of the wandering stop famous by putting it on the published map of his second expedition westward to California.
In 1844, after the mexican-american war, the springs of Las Vegas quenched, the thirst of many weary travelers head for the California Gold Fields. After bringing his followers to the Great Salt Lake, Brigham Young directed the creation of a Mormon colony in the area known as the Las Vegas mission, it was intended to claim the land for his vision of the state of Deseret, as well as to provide a way For converts coming from Europe to travel up the Colorado River and then overland to Salt Lake City, rather than across an unfriendly United States, the colony was one of a number founded on the fringe of the planned state created in 1855 by 1857.
Internal dissension. Among the leadership rating by Paiute for food and the failure of the lead line on Mount potosi led the small group to petition to return to Salt Lake City. The lead mine on Mount POTUS II turned out to have silver and zinc mixed in with the lead and a short mineral rush to the area occurred in the early 1860s.
While the potency rush only lasted about a year, other mines were found in the Eldorado Canyon area to the south of Boulder City. Today, unlike the potency rush, this one was for gold. Many of these miners came West to avoid the Civil War and Eldorado came to be a wild place.
Deserters from both sides of the Civil War regularly clashed their men tended to camp with like-minded deserters, and the encampments fought. Gunshots were regularly heard, though, normally only to perforate the other side’s banner when the Nevada Territory was created in 1861.
Today’s, southern nevada was part of New Mexico Territory when the Arizona Territory was split off from New Mexico. Our area became part of Arizona when Nevada became a state in 1864, we were still part of Arizona Territory.
During these years, people periodically tried to use the old mormon fort site for ranching or as a store, but to no lasting effect. Octavius Decatur gas, nat, Lewis and Louis Cole acquired the fort in Grounds in 1865 and created the Las Vegas Ranch.
Gas eventually bought out his two partners in the early 1870s running the ranch himself. The other two created ranches elsewhere in what would become southern Adam gasps, was elected to the Arizona, territorial legislature and lobbied for the creation of Paiute County and got it, but at a most inopportune time.
Just a few months later, the federal Congress granted the area to the state of Nevada in 1867, after a few years in limbo, with gasps still believing he was in Arizona, Nevada came to collect VAT taxes.
Paiute County was dissolved by the territory of Arizona in 1871. Gas continued to Ranch there for years, building it up to an oasis in the desert. In 1882, however, gas lost the Rancho to Archibald Stewart to pay off a debt.
He owed Stewart and his wife moved in two years. After moving Stewart fired one of his ranch hands when the Ranch Hand said something untoward to Helen Stewart in Archibald absence, Archibald tracked him down to the neighboring Kyle ranch in the ensuing gunfight Archibald was killed, while Kyle was eventually tried for the killing.
He was acquitted and the former Ranch Hand was nowhere to be found, so his wife Helen Stewart had to take over running the ranch. She was a dainty but strong-willed lady known to wave a shotgun about.
If the natives got too Restless or visitors were too rambunctious under her control, the ranch remained an important part of Southern Nevada as a stomping place and a nexus for further development in the area for the next 20 years, a few other ranches were created, but Southern Nevada’s stayed relatively unoccupied until the beginning of the 20th century.
In 1902, Senator William Andrews Clark began planning a railroad between San Pedro, California and Salt Lake City Utah. He bought land in southern nevada, including the las vegas ranch from Helen Stewart Clark who was kicked out of the US Senate for bribing his way into a seat was a successful mining entrepreneur.
His railroad would serve mining districts along its route, given the need for a watering stop in the desert. The railroad decided to create a town at the major water source in the Vegas Valley. It wasn’t an easy start.
An earlier town site named, the original Las Vegas town site had been founded by Jay T McWilliams on the west side of the tracks, but had no utilities or backing from railroad clark’s. San Pedro Los Angeles and Salt Lake Railroad laid out.
What was known as Clark’s, Las Vegas town site east of the tracks, with the oxygen of lots on May 15, 1905 most residents moved to the new town. Nick Williams’s. Old town side was virtually abandoned, a fire a few months later destroyed much of what was left of McWilliams town.
A few residents moved back to the older town, which became known as rag town because of the tents and makeshift housing that grew up there. The new town of Las Vegas housed railroad workers and businesses, which catered to the railroad Las Vegas prospered enough that a few years later, an attempt to create a new County was successful and in 1909 Clark, County named for William Andrews Clark was created, was quite a Boisterous little town with saloons brothels and gaming segregated two blocks.
Sixteen and seventeen of the original town site, the railroad insisted on prohibiting alcohol outside of those blocks, though people quickly violated that contractual obligation, major staples, such as the Arizona Club began and flourished on block 16 Lodge 17, was a segregated area for minorities.
To have the same types of offerings, but it was not as successful and much of the block was later sold for housing Lots for the first few decades after its founding Las Vegas function as a railroad stop along the road between Los Angeles and Salt Lake City.
A year after its founding another railroad, the Las Vegas in Tonopah was built by Clark’s, company to Goldfield Nevada. It never actually reached Tonopah. The LV NT functioned until World War, one when it was shut down.
In 1919, the state of Nevada bought its Road bed and created the first state highway from Las Vegas to Goldfield railroad affairs continued to affect Las Vegas in 1922, a huge railroad strike swept the United States and it included Las Vegas.
The strike turned violent when the railroad brought in scabs to break the strike. Marshals and private security had to be brought in to protect the non striking workers within a downtown block, which was fenced and fortified by the railroad.
The National strike was eventually broken with few concessions to workers, communities which had supported the strikers, which included Las Vegas, were punished by the railroad. Much of the rail yard work was moved to Kelly NT and out of Las Vegas and the stockyard area created near downtown for the next few years.
While it might have seemed that Las Vegas was doomed to fall into obscurity outside forces, including a flood in the Salton sink in Southern California, led to plans to control the Colorado River. Since 1902, there had been survey, work up and down the river for a possible dam site that could control the flooding on the river and generate electricity under them.
Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover, an immensely influential engineer in humanitarian. At the time a site was chosen and an agreement regarding water use was negotiated between the seven states that the river flows through this Agreement, the Colorado River Compact of 1922, though modified with successive treaties, is still the primary governing document about the river.
Today, it took a decade for the design, work and funding to be allocated, but when it was Hoover was president and dealing with the depression, construction began on Hoover Dam in 1931. Hoover was defeated for re-election the following year and his successor, Franklin Delano, Roosevelt, refused to dedicate a dam name for his predecessor and his Secretary of the Interior, Harold Ickes renamed the dam Boulder Dam.
The original name was officially acknowledged by Congress in 1948 and Hoover Dam. It is to this day the project was a huge boon to Las Vegas, despite prohibition being in full effect. The town that lies only about 30 miles away was certainly in no mood to abide by such restrictions, be they constitutional amendments or not.
People came from the dam project to patronize local establishments. It certainly helped the gambling had been legalized in Nevada the year. The dam construction started as had kwikki for the time. Marriages and divorces, the town created for the dam project called Boulder City, remained stubbornly dry without any a device that was mere miles away.
Boulder City was a federal reservation and was segregated, as was the dam project after protesting by local black organizations and intervention by the First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt. Sixty-One black workers were finally hired out of the over 5000 workers who worked on the dam.
None of them were allowed to live in Boulder City and most of them had to live in the Westside area, originally laid out by Jay T McWilliams. The dam project caused a building boom in downtown Vegas. The old dusty bars of block 16 three blocks north of downtown were replaced by new clubs on Fremont Street in the center of town.
Even once, the dam project was completed. Las Vegas continued to build corruption, as might be expected came along with the expansion. Las Vegas politics did get a bit unusual during the late 1930s. Eventually, a mayor of the city was elected, who was hated by the city council mayor Russell’s.
Fights with the council were legendary and eventually the council resigned and max. In 1940, mayor Russell appointed a new council, the city attorney sued, that they were illegally appointed. Eventually, the two city councils had to meet concurrently in the same room to try to conduct city business, which was difficult since it was unclear which one was the legal council.
At the same time, with the support of Senator Pat McCarran, the Army Air Corps decided to put a training base at the airport for Las Vegas. With the impending war, it was clear. More pilots would be necessary.
Unfortunately, the airport was operated by Western air express airline which had served the city since 1926. The city had to take over their lease, then give it to the Army Air Corps in a rare display of unity that two city councils signed identical resolutions to do so, and the Las Vegas Army Airfield was the result.
The question of city councils was finally resolved by the Nevada State Supreme Court in mid 1941 and the old city council was again in charge. Mayor Russell was indicted for malfeasance but never went to trial.
He died of a heart attack a few months later after the indictment World War, two brought another federal boon to the valley through the creation of the basic magnesium plant producing magnesium for the war effort.
This led to the need for worker housing. The community, which was built to serve the plant, became Henderson. The magnesium produced by the BMI plant helped burn down much of Germany and Japan as well as being used in metal for military applications.
The plant was closed in late 1944, having produced enough magnesium to provide everything needed for the rest of the war world. War 2 also saw the creation of the first casinos on the Las Vegas Strip, the section of road to Los Angeles south of Las Vegas.
First among these was the El Rancho Vegas started before the coming of war. In 1940, investors led by James Cashman, a longtime resident and businessman in Las Vegas brought Thomas hull in to build. It Cashman saw the economic advantages to building on unincorporated County property.
The El Rancho Vegas opened in April 1941 foreshadowing what would become the fabulous strip of today? In 1942, another casino was built on the strip called the last frontier, which incorporated a much earlier casino bar known as the pero dice club, though the area of the valley was also known as the paradise area, the names were not related.
Paradise was the name given to the area by farmers around 1908 and later was the name of the unincorporated County which covered this area of the strip. In 1946, the owner of the Brown Derby restaurant, in Los Angeles, Billy Wilkerson, started building another casino which would come to define the Las Vegas.
A popular memory of flamingo during construction, Wilkerson sold his shares to investors. He owed money to including Benjamin Bugsy Siegel, who eventually took over the project. The investors were part of organized crime.
Siegel had been involved with other casinos before and during the war, but this was his first and would be his last foray into building a major property. While there were restrictions on who could own and operate a casino in Nevada, specifically to prevent the mob from doing just this, the mob continued to find ways around the rules Bugsy oversaw the rest of the Flamingo construction project, which rapidly grew in cost under his watch.
The opening for the new lavish resort in 1946 did not bode well. Within a year. Siegel was assassinated under the orders of his own organization because of financial losses at the Flamingo and suspicions that he had skimmed money from the project personally, but the mob was now firmly entrenched as a driving force for shady money on the law, Vegas Strip, providing access To money for buildings, since few banks would fund a casino they perfected, the clandestine skim from the top of casino earnings mob influence would remain a standard yet secretive part of the casino business into the 1970s.
After World War, two more casinos were built, bringing more jobs by the 1950s Vegas had become one of the premier vacation spots in the United States and by the end of that decade it was a name known throughout the world.
Major acts became star attractions entertainers. Like Frank Sinatra in the Rat Pack, The Andrews Sisters, Elvis Presley, Liberace, Bing, Crosby and so many others made Vegas a regular place for them in 1951.
A very different attraction, though, was created a hundred miles to the north. In the middle of the former Las Vegas Army, Air Field bombing range, the Nevada Test Site was founded. Atmospheric testing of nuclear bombs became a regular occurrence for the next two decades, with the reopening of Nellis Air Force Base in 1948, military activity to the north of town became an important part of Southern Nevada’s.
Economic development, the strip proliferated with more and more casinos segregation which had come to the Vegas area in 1931, with the creation of Boulder City, came to be a much greater part of Las Vegas in the years after World War, two, the casinos on the strip were Segregated in practice, though, not by law entertainers, like Sammy Davis jr.
, who had been playing, shows in Las Vegas, since the Warriors were not allowed to stay in the casinos where he performed by 1960. Local black residents threatened to march down the strip to protest and the casinos caved.
An agreement named for the Moulin Rouge Casino, where it was signed, brought segregation to an end. Eventually, in the casinos Las Vegas, which had a reputation as the Mississippi of the West would be integrated the following year, a new wind swept into town that would blow the mob away.
Two major figures said Las Vegas on the path to the creation of today’s extravagant mega resorts. First came Jay Sarno, who had been building a resort. That was, unlike the other casinos, it still borrowed tremendously from the Teamsters Union, and I got the lovely benefit of the mob secretly skimming off profits.
But it was monumentally larger, designed to be reminiscent of the opulence of ancient Rome, though the lavish resort was ahead of its time. Caesar’s. Palace was completed in 1966 just in time for another change.
Howard Hughes, the famous aviation moment, had been ousted by his company TWA and given the largest single check ever written to a private individual for his stock, he decided to move to Las Vegas and took up residence on the top floor.
The Desert Inn when the hotel tried to evict him. He bought the Hotel and Casino and started his era. He eventually owned five casinos and vast amounts of the desert countryside, given his reticence to appear in public changes had to be made to allow him to get gaming licenses for his properties.
Eventually, this and other changes led to the era of corporate ownership of casinos with the lack of individual owners. The mobs role in the casinos was finally to be broken. The dueling influence of Sarno and Hughes drove the creation of ever larger and more ornate casino resorts.
The land Caesars Palace was built on was owned by Kirk Kerkorian, who had been incredibly successful in other investments, tacorian decided to try to beat Sarno and took an even bigger risk, just off the main strip he built.
What was the largest hotel in the world in 1969, the international most people believe they wouldn’t pan out, but the hotel did and kkuk Orion took that money and bought the faltering MGM Studios for its name and film library.
The name would eventually be used on two casinos on the strip. This inaugurated a pattern which continued for decades, one property would take the risk of building larger than ever before and when it worked in another, would and another it didn’t end, except, of course, when it did girls in Las Vegas and on this Trip is always affected by both local and national events.
Various economic slowdowns during the 1960’s 70s and 80s, coupled with the MGM Grand in Las Vegas Hilton fires of 1980, a real slowdown in local building, the inn active public disasters like the fires, though they made not only the strip but high-rise hotels.
Much safer throughout the world in the long run always affected the tourist base of the community. In the late 1980s, a new player emerged on the scene, one who would again change casino resorts as Vegas knew them.
Steve wynn began building the first mega resort on the strip since 1973 in 1988 is mirage with the volcano on the strip and extraordinary offerings inside inaugurated. The contemporary vision of las vegas wynn worked with michael milken, who was able to raise over five hundred million dollars through the sale of what became known as junk bonds.
This was the first mega resort in las vegas to be funded by Wall Street money, and it was paid off within 18 months of opening the success of the Mirage led to another extraordinary growth period. The Vegas Valley became the fastest-growing urban area in the United States year after year, [ Music ], the population of the valley, went from less than 700,000 people in 1990 to nearly 2 million in 2010, the cities of Las Vegas North Las Vegas Henderson and the unincorporated Area of Clark, County fused into one contiguous urban space with boundaries that many locals don’t even realize the growth rate was so immense at the local Clark County School District four years had to build a school and a half every month.
Just to keep up with the population growth, the Great Recession of 2008 hit Las Vegas hard. Several major building projects stopped, though not the nine point: two billion dollar City Center project, the most expensive, privately funded construction project in the history of the United States.
It opened in 2010 and is better known under the Aria name. Today, however, the valley did lose its status as the fastest growing area in the United States for about four years and the jobs market stagnated.
Some of these halted projects are still simply sitting uncompleted because the exponential growth had come down so suddenly the standard infrastructure of such a large city has been lagging behind. Today the city has become a vibrant desert metropolis in its own right.
Many residents hardly ever interacting with what drives the local economy with Strip locals, often avoid the tourists in gambling which make the city famous living regular American lives, but with a bit of Sin City, culture brought in it & # 39.
S also helpful that the casinos pay enough taxes to exempt Nevadans from the state income tax. New construction projects have again started both on the strip and elsewhere in the valley, while growth is not what it was, it has recovered.
The massive growth which drove everything has become more manageable, though the Vegas Valley is not growing. At the same rate, I wouldn’t bet against her. As the largest urban area founded in the 20th century in the United States, Vegas has found its own path.
A community of over two million in the middle of the desert water brought its residents here and continues to be an issue as the focus of gaming. In the United States, Vegas provides a unique experiment and, oddly enough, it’s, a great place to live [, Music, ], [, Music, ], [, Music, ]